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The following are resources to assist with helping students that struggle with social skills, emotional regulation which can lead to challenging behavior and school discipline issues.  There is information about what evaluations to request and how to develop a good positive behavior plan as well as how to participate in a manifestation determination meeting.

A section also addresses bullying and bullying prevention.


An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans. (Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice) Download in pdf   

Conducting a Functional Behavior Assessment (Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice)  Download in pdf

Addressing Student Problem Behavior: Creating Positive Behavioral Intervention Plans & Supports.(Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice) Intro/chapters-html   

Zero Tolerance & Alternative Strategies: A Fact Sheet for Educators & Policymakers (National Association of School Psychologists) Prevalence of; problems associated with zero tolerance policies; impact on students; alternatives including violence prevention, social skills training and positive behavioral supports, early intervention strategies.

Discipline Flow Chart. Protections in the IDEA apply to students who have been found eligible for special education. They also apply to students for whom the school is deemed to have knowledge that the child might have a disability. These are students who have not yet been found eligible, but the school had a basis of knowledge of a disability, including students who have been referred for initial evaluation.

Positive Behavior Plans

Prevention Research & IDEA Discipline Provisions: A Guide for School Administrators - (U. S. Department of Education) Describes research-validated practices for safe, effective learning environments for all children.

Suspending Disbelief - Moving Beyond Punishment to Promote Effective Interventions for Children with Mental or Emotional Disorders (Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law). Prevention and early intervention for children with emotional disorders; functional behavior assessments; positive behavioral interventions; how this works in real life.


Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Supports. Giving students the tools to reduce bullying behavior through the blending of school-wide positive behavior support, explicit instruction, and a redefinition of the bullying construct from the National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

Disability Harassment in the Public Schools (Word format) by Mark C. Weber, published in the William and Mary Law Review (Vol. 43, Issue 3, Feb 2002). Mark Weber, author of the Special Education Law and Education Treatise, wrote this excellent article that will help you understand the legal issues of disability harassment. Pdf format

Schoolwide Prevention of Bullying (Northwest Regional Educational Library). 30 percent of American children are involved in bullying, as bullies, victims, or both. Approximately 15 percent are “severely traumatized or distressed” by bullies . . . Despite these numbers, bullying behavior is rarely detected by teachers, and is even less frequently taken seriously. This booklet provides an overview of what is known about bullying behavior and successful efforts to address it; profiles anti-bullying programs and offers resources. Download in pdf (28 pages)

Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crimes: A Guide for Schools (U. S. Department of Education & Office for Civil Rights & National Association of Attorneys General). Many children experience sexual, racial and ethnic harassment at school. This Guide provides step-by-step guidance about how to protect students from harassment and violence. Download

Preventing Bullying: A Manual For Schools and Communities. This document addresses the problem of bullying in schools and defines bullying, discusses the seriousness of this behavior and the effectiveness of a comprehensive approach, and presents strategies for teachers, students, and parents to use when dealing with bullying situations. It also provides examples of innovative and successful approaches used by schools in different parts of the country.
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